Classicism (from an armour. classicus - exemplary), style and a direction in the literature and the art, addressed to an antique heritage as to norm and the ideal sample.

Occurrence of style classicism

In 1755 Johann Ioahim Vinkelmann wrote in Dresden: "the Unique way for us to become great and if it is possible also inimitable, is to imitate ancient". This appeal to update the modern art, using beauty of the antiquity perceived as an ideal, has found in the European society active support. The progressive public saw necessary opposition to court baroque in classicism. But also the educated feudal lords did not reject imitation antique forms. The classicism epoch has coincided on time with an epoch of bourgeois revolutions - English in 1688, French - in 101 year.

The historical characteristic of style classicism

From forms of the rococo noted first by the Roman influence, after the termination of building of the Brandenburg gate in Berlin in 1791 abrupt turn towards the Greek forms has been made. After emancipating wars against Napoleon this "ellinizm" has found the masters in K.F.Shinkele and L a background of Klentse. Facades, columns and triangular pediments became the architectural alphabet.

Aspiration to realize into modern building noble simplicity and quiet greatness of ancient art conducted to desire completely to copy antique construction. That at F.Zhilli remains as the project of a monument of Fridrihu II, by order of Ludwig of I Bavarian has been carried out on slopes of Danube in Regensburg and has received the name of Valhalla (Walhalla "the Hall dead").

Classicism: and - a fragment of Golitsynsky hospital in Moscow, - bureau, in - a chaise lounge, g - a bed, d - clothes, e - an armchair.

Princely palaces - residences became the building centers in style of classicism, special popularity was got Marktplatts (floor space) in Karlsruhe, by Maksimilianshtadt and Ljudvigshtrasse in Munich, and also building in Darmstadt. Prussian kings in Berlin and Potsdam built mainly in classical style. But palaces any more were not the main object of building. Country houses and country houses could not be distinguished from them. Public constructions have been included in sphere of the state building - theatres, museums, universities and libraries. To them buildings of social appointment - hospitals, at home for blind and deaf-and-dumb, and also prisons and barracks were added. The picture was supplemented with country estates of aristocracy and bourgeoisie, a town hall and apartment houses in cities and villages.

Building of churches any more did not play a prime role, however in Karlsruhe, Darmstadt and Potsdam remarkable constructions though thus and discussion was conducted have been created, whether pagan architectural forms for a Christian monastery approach.

Building features of style classicism

After disintegration of the great historical styles which have endured centuries, in XIX century there is an obvious acceleration of development of architecture. It becomes especially obvious if to compare last century to all previous thousand-year development. If the early medieval architecture and a gothic style cover about five centuries, the Renaissance and baroque together - already only half of this term classicism needed incomplete century to seize Europe and to get for ocean.

Characteristic features of style classicism
With change of the point of view on architecture, to development of building techniques, occurrence of new types of constructions in XIX century there was also a considerable moving of the centre of world development of architecture. In the foreground there are countries which have not worried the higher stage of development of baroque. The top classicism reaches in France, Germany, England and Russia.
Tower of Admiralty of 1806
St.-Petersburg. the Kazan cathedral of 1811
Moscow. Pashkov's house. 1780

Classicism was expression of philosophical rationalism, ideology and art of a new class - bourgeoisies. The classicism concept consisted in use in architecture of antique systems form creation which, however, was filled with the new maintenance. The aesthetics of simple antique forms and the strict warrant were put in an accident counterbalance, not strictly architectural and art displays of outlook of becoming obsolete aristocracy.
Classicism stimulated archaeological researches which have led to surprising opening and new knowledge of the developed antique civilizations. Results of work of the archaeological expeditions, generalized in extensive scientific researches, have put theoretical bases of the movement which participants considered ancient art as perfection top in building art, the sample of absolute and eternal beauty. Popularizations of antique forms promoted the numerous albums containing the images of architectural monuments.

Types of constructions of style classicism
Character of architecture in most cases remained dependent on tectonics of a bearing wall and the arch which became more flat. The portico, while walls outside and from within, get apart small pilasters and eaves becomes an important plastic element. In a composition whole and details, volumes and plans symmetry prevails. The color score is characterized by light pastel tones. White color, as a rule, serves for revealing of the architectural elements which are a symbol of active tectonics. The interior becomes lighter, constrained; furniture simple and easy, thus designers used the Egyptian, Greek or Roman motives.
The most considerable town-planning concepts and their realization are connected with classicism in nature of the end XVIII and first half XIX century during these period new cities, parks, resorts are put. The new organization of moving directed on overcoming of a social inequality and on creation of new social harmony, socialists - utopians offer in the end of XIX century.